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ART “4” “2”-DAY  13 March
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BIRTHS: 1825 GUDE — 1858 LUCE — 1870 GLACKENS
^ Born on 13 March 1825: Hans Fredrik Gude, Norwegian painter who died in 1903. [Was Gude good as a painter?]
— Born in Oslo, Hans Frederik Gude studied at the Düsseldorf Academy under Wilhelm Schirmer, where he befriended the genre painter Adolf Tidemand with whom he collaborated on several paintings. Gude taught at the Düsseldorf Academy from 1854 to 1860, and at the Academy in Karlsruhe from 1860 until 1880, at which time he accepted a teaching position at the Berlin Academy. His early work was dominated by romanticized scenes of the mountains and fjords of Norway, but by 1860 he turned to coastline scenes and began incorporating elements of naturalism.
Fishing Boats Setting to Sea (1885) _ This is an example of the later phase of Gude's painting career. Evidence of naturalism is clearly evident in the extensive detail with which all elements of the painting are rendered and in the depiction of the mundane activities of the diminutive foreground figures.[especially diminutive in this tiny reproduction, the only Gude which I found on the internet]
^ Born on 13 March 1858: Maximilien Luce, French Pointillist painter who died on 06 February 1941.
— Luce apprenticed with various artists from 1872-1884, including painter Carolus Duran at the École des Beaux-Arts and engraver H.T. Hildebrands. In 1884 he joined Georges Seurat's Societé des Artistes Indépendants, now known as the Neo-Impressionists and three years later participated in the Salon des Indépendants. Soon Luce was one of the leaders of the movement. Luce had strong socialist ideals. Politically active as an anarchist, Luce was incarcerated in 1894 as a socialist sympathizer. Upon his release, he created a series of lithographs on prison life. Later Luce abandoned both his socialist beliefs and his pointillist style, eschewing anarchist causes and painting in a looser, freer, less controlled manner. Under the influence of Pissarro, he returned to a broad technique influenced by impressionism, thus neglecting the divisionism he had previously adopted through his contact with Seurat's art. He died in Paris.
Usines de CharleroiHenri Edmond CrossLa Seine à HerblayLes Batteurs de Pieux, Quai de la Seine à BillancourtUne Rue de Paris en Mai 1871 (La Commune)Notre-Dame (1899, 81x55cm)
^ Died on 13 March 1653: Simon Jacobszoon de Vlieger, Dutch painter born in 1600. — De Vlieger was a painter mainly of marine subjects, active in his native Rotterdam, Delft, and Amsterdam. One of the outstanding marine painters of his period, he moved from stormy subjects in the manner of Porcellis to serene and majestic images that influenced van de Capelle and Willem van de Velde the Younger. De Vlieger also painted a few landscapes and genre pictures. — De Vlieger's students included Jan van de Cappelle and Willem van de Velde II.
Marine with Dutch Shipping (1635, 78x112cm)
A Beach with Shipping Offshore, detail
A Dutch Man-of-war and Various Vessels in a Breeze (1642, 41x55cm) _ Simon de Vlieger took his style from Porcellis (who likewise influenced Jan van Goyen). In the 1630s De Vlieger (like Van Goyen) was caught up in the tonal style, so suited to marine painting, and he gradually departed from Porcellis's tendency to paint seas in stormy wheather. As in "A Dutch Man-of-war and Various Vessels in a Breeze", his sea is usually much calmer and less threatening to the ships, the vast sky more gentle. Rarely, too, is it the high sea; the shore-line is visible on the distant horizon, and in the lower left corner a stake is ptrotruding as a discreet indication of the shore at this side. It is a wide estuary, then; ships are coming in from sea; another ship, in the distance, is riding at anchor.
Visit of Frederick Hendriks II to Dordrecht in 1646 (1649, 71x92cm) _ Visit of Frederick Hendriks II to Dordrecht in 1646 (1650, 60x83cm) _ These two versions of the same subject are in the late style of Simon de Vlieger. There is a third version
Landscape with River and Trees (70x61cm) _ This is one of the few forest landscapes of the artist who was specialized in marine paintings. A hunting scene in the foreground makes the composition more lively.
^ Born on 13 March 1870: William Glackens, US Ashcan School painter who died on 22 May 1938.
— Glackens wan born in Philadelphia, he died in Westport, Conneticut. His paintings of street scenes and middle-class urban life rejected 19th-century academic art and introduced a matter-of-fact realism into the art of the United States. Glackens studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts and at the same time worked as an illustrator for the Philadelphia Record, the Public Ledger, and The Press. In 1895 he spent a year in Paris and then settled in New York, where he worked as an illustrator for The New York Herald and the New York World. McClure's Magazine sent him to Cuba in 1898 to cover the Spanish-American War.
      At about the turn of the century he took up painting seriously. Hammerstein's Roof Garden (1901), a cabaret scene, was his first important picture. He joined a group of artists who were also interested in depicting contemporary life. Robert Henri was the leader of this group, which included John Sloan, George Luks, and Everett Shinn as well as the more Romantic painters Ernest Lawson, Maurice Prendergast, and Arthur B. Davies. Known as The Eight, they held one memorable exhibition in 1908, but, because of diversity of viewpoints, they disbanded. Among Glackens' major early paintings, Chez Mouquin (1905) shows a gay New York restaurant in a vivid and robust manner. Later, he became interested in Impressionism and was particularly influenced by Pierre-Auguste Renoir.
Scribner's August fiction NumberRocks and Lighthouse (1908, 63x76cm) — May Day, Central Park (1905, 64x77cm) — Garden at Hartford (1918) — Beach Scene near New London (1918) — The Soda Fountain (1935) — Connecticut Landscape
Hammerstein's Roof Garden (1901, 76x63cm) _ At the turn of the century, New Yorkers began to frequent roof gardens — nightspots built on the roofs of buildings to escape the summer heat. This is Hammerstein's Roof Garden at the corner of Seventh Avenue and 42nd Street.
      At the top of the image, Glackens shows you a woman in a blue dress performing a tightrope act. Entertainment at roof gardens was on the seedy side: acrobats, exotic dancers, mermaids in glass tanks. Like the blockbuster movies we now flock to see during the summer, it was trashy but fun. It was also a tribute to technology. Audiences were carried to the roof on newfangled elevators. Electric lights lit the stage. A roof garden was held to be one of the crowning achievements of the modern city.
      Look at the people seated at the bottom of the canvas. The well-dressed women with their backs to you seem quite respectable. But the way the tables and chairs are jumbled together, it's hard to tell who is with who. Does the man in the group actually know any of these women? Have they been introduced? Will they speak to each other? The public mingling of the sexes you see here was new, just as new as light bulbs and elevators. The women are walking a tightrope of their own—the fine line between Victorian values and a new modern sensibility.
Mahone Bay (1910, 66x79cm) _ Mahone Bay has come to be one of the "signature" works of William Glackens, having represented him in twenty-five loan exhibitions in the years since its acquisition. In this context it can surely be regarded as typical. In the first place, the painting displays the artist's rapport with the life around him. He worked as a newspaper illustrator, an experience he shared with John Sloan, Everett Shinn, and George Luks. This activity cultivated a genuine love of the human comedy. A generosity of spirit in Glackens's view of life is evident in the way he recorded whatever he observed, whether a street incident, a landscape, or a still life arrangement. This warmth conditions his skill and takes his work a perceptible step beyond mere professional reportage.
      Moreover, his experience as a journalist and illustrator contributed to the development of a technique marked by a special freshness and spontaneity in the handling of pigment, or charcoal, his preferred drawing medium. If one closely examines Mahone Bay, this confident pleasure in the medium is very evident. The colors are laid on with a firmness and density far removed from the suggestive lightness of touch in the standard Impressionist method. All of the elements of the composition, figures, boats, and buildings, are realized as complete entities, self-sufficient within their allotted picture space. We know, as a matter of fact, that the picture is nearly an exact rendering of the scene. The small boat with dark sails is a fisherman's boat, its sails dyed with tanbark to prevent mold. The dock belonged to a now vanished resort hotel. The largest boat is the Blackbird, with its staysail set in a position of artistic license.1 These facts indicate the artist's essentially realistic point of view. The place and the events of a summer's day in 1910, are empirically intact. The paint and the color are the means of recording these facts. There are those who believe that this respect for the facts is an essentially US trait.
      Of all the US Impressionists, William Glackens seems closest in feeling to his French contemporaries, to Renoir in particular and the comparison need not be at the expense of the US painter. Although it is unlikely that a work by Glackens would ever be mistaken for a Renoir, it is also true that no work by Glackens would suffer unduly through its comparison to a work by the French master. Both men were devoted to the sensuous pleasures of life, the American perhaps the more sophisticated of the two. Both were visual hedonists. A comparison of Glackens and Renoir could be considered something of a test case for the perennial problem of national identity in art. A final footnote is that William Glackens acted as the agent and scout for Dr. Albert C. Barnes, whose private collection of the works of Renoir is one of the best in the world.

Died on a 13 March:
1922 Max Nonnenbruch, German artist born on 25 January 1857.
1855 John James Masquerier, British artist born in October 1778. [Did he only masquerade as an artist? I find nothing of him on the internet.]
1854 Richard-Barrett Davis, British artist born in 1782.
1806 Gabriel-François Doyen, French artist born on 20 May 1726.
1654 Jan van Balen, Flemish artist born on 21 July 1611.

Born on a 13 March:

1919 Kumi Sugaï, Japanese artist who died in 1996.
1864 Alexei Jawlensky, Russian German Expressionist painter who died in 1941. — LINKSSpanish Woman (1913) — Meditation (The Prayer) (1922) — Love (1925)
1851 Berhard Wiegandt, German artist who died on 28 March 1918.
1839 (or 1840?) Daniel Rigway Knight, US artist who died in March 1924. — LINKSHarvest Repast (1875) — By the RiversideArranging Flowers,
1825 Hans Fredrik Gude, Norwegian painter who died in 1903. — Fishing Boats Setting to Sea
1815 Hermanus Koekkoek, Dutch artist who died on 05 November 1815. — Relative? of Barend Cornelius Koekkoek [1803-1862] Willem Koekkoek [1839-1895] ?
1781 Karl Friedrich Schinkel, German architect and painter who died on 09 October 1841.
1774 baron Pierre-Narcisse Guérin, French Neoclassical painter who died on 16 July 1833. — Guérin had an early success with Return of Marcus Sextus (1799). Phèdre et Hippolyte (1802) and Andromaque et Pyrrhus (1810) are melodramatic. Énée racontant à Didon les malheurs de la ville de Troie is his best painting, the only one with feeling for color and atmosphere. Among the students of Guérin were Eugène Delacroix and Théodore Géricault. — LINKS


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