1901: VAN GOGH EXHIBITION
Born on 17 March 1685: Jean-Marc
Nattier, French painter specialized in portraits, who died
on 07 November 1766.
Marie Adélaïde of France as Flora (1742, 94x128cm) _ In 1742 the Queen of France, Maria Leczinska, wife of Louis XV, impressed by Nattier's remarkable talent in the execution of portraits, requested that the artist paint her first daughter Henrietta [1727-1752]. The original version is still at Versailles, as is the replica executed in 1745 for the castle of Choisy. According to the most reliable reconstructions the canvas of Florence, signed and dated lower right 'Nattier pinxit 1742', is probably a replica executed specially for the Spanish Infanta Luisa Elisabetta, Henrietta's twin sister, and sent to Madrid in 1746 together with its pendant. The two paintings were probably brought to Parma some years later with the settlement of the Infanta in the Emilian city, and remained on display in the Ducal Palace until the unification of Italy, at which time they were moved to Florence.
The portrait shows Nattier's ability to construct an image that is something between 'naif' and 'flatterie'. The transposition into the mythological figure, the perfect turning of the body and the regularity of the brushstrokes do not suppress the characterization and recognizability of the face; the whole is rendered with a polished, silken pictorial style drawn from studies on Lebrun and Rubens.
Marie Adélaïde of France as Diana (1745, 95x128cm) _ This painting represents Marie-Adélaïde (1732-1800), the third daughter of Louis XV. It is signed and dated lower left: Nattier pinxit 1745. The pendant of the painting (Marie Adelaide of France as Flora) is also in the Uffizi. Nattier specialized in portraying his sitters in mythological or allegorical fancy dress, and achieved great success with these portraits.
Mademoiselle de Clermont "en Sultane" (1733, 109x105cm) _ The picture is a vivid example of French "turquerie" fashion; an elegant lady of the court, still wearing her ermine cloak, is painted as a sultana at the bath, surrounded by her slaves.
Comtesse de Tillières (1750, 80x63cm) _ The silk pelisse of the the Comtesse is trimmed with squirrel fur.
Died on 17 March 1619: Denys
Calvaert Dioniso Fiammingo,
Flemish painter from Antwerp, born in 1540, who emigrated to Italy in about
1562 and remained there for the rest of his life. (In Italy he was called
Dionisio Fiammingo.). He specialized in Landscapes.
His students included Francesco
Albani and Guido
He settled in Bologna, and although his work is in an undistinguished Mannerist style, he played an important role as a teacher. He established an academy in 1572 and had more than 100 pupils, among whom were some of the most distinguished artists of the Bolognese School - Albani, Domenichino and Reni. The more celebrated academy of the Carracci was probably inspired by Calvaert's.
The Presentation of Mary (93x78cm) The Mystic Marriage of St. Catherine (1490)
Born on 17 March 1686: Jean-Baptiste
Oudry, French artist specialized in Animals
who died on 30 April 1755. Studied under Nicolas
de Largillière. Oudry's students included Jean-Germain
Oudry was a painter, tapestry designer, and illustrator. He was a pupil of Largillière and painted some portraits, but he is renowned chiefly as one of the outstanding animal painters of the 18th century. With Desportes he was the foremost exponent of hunting scenes and still-life with dead game. Some of his best work was done as a tapestry designer, and he was head of the Beauvais and Gobelins factories from 1734 and 1736 respectively. He also did book illustrations, notably for an edition of La Fontaine's Fables (1755). His son Jacques-Charles (1720-78), a flower and animal painter, sometimes collaborated with him.
Dead Roe (1721, 193x260cm) _ Dead Wolf (1721,193x260cm) _ These are two of Oudry's finest paintings. Swan Attacked by a Dog
Louis XV Chassant le Cerf dans la Forêt de Saint Germain (1730) _ Fils du peintre Jacques Oudry, Jean-Baptiste développe un sens aigu de la vie animale et du paysage, qui amènent Louis XV à lui commander en 1728 une scène de chasse. Le tableau se présente comme un épisode pris sur le vif de la vie de cour au XVIIIe siècle, et témoigne d'un immense souci de précision dans les détails: chaque personnage est traité comme un portrait à part entière, et est parfaitement identifiable. Jean-Baptiste Oudry s'est lui-même représenté en bas à droite, en train de dessiner la scène, confirmant ainsi qu'il a peint cette toile d'après nature. De même, les chiens adoptent des attitudes très individualisées, et le peintre semble avoir traduit le caractère propre de chaque animal. Une attention particulière est également apportée au paysage qui présente une multitude de plans; ainsi, dans le lointain, se devine la ville de Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Une grande variété des mouvements et des attitudes, associée à une composition soignée, donne à cette oeuvre une grande qualité décorative, parfaitement reconnue en son temps: en effet, le roi acheta l'oeuvre dès 1730, et la fit immédiatement placer dans son cabinet de Marly.
Laie et ses marcassins attaqués par des dogues (1748, 258x400cm).
Died on 17 March 1690: Jan
van Mieris, Dutch painter born on 17 or 07 Jun 1660.
Born in Leiden, elder brother of Willem van Mieris and the son of Frans van Mieris the elder, under whom he first studied. He had intended to study under Gerard de Lairesse, but was dissuaded by the latter's dissolute lifestyle; it is not known under whom he then studied. He became a member of the Leiden guild in 1686 and in 1688 set out for Italy. In Venice he failed to find purchasers, and in Florence he received an invitation from Cosimo III de' Medici but was turned away on religious grounds. He died in Rome. He painted principally history subjects, but his earliest works were apparently genre scenes in his father's manner.
Lady and Cavalier (1680, 29x22cm)
Born on 17 March 1851: Julien
Dupré, French artist who died in April 1910.
Dupré was one of the leading exponents of the second generation of Realist painters; a group that also includes Léon Lhermitte (1844-1925), Jules Bastien-Lepage (1848-1884) and Pascal Dagnan-Bouveret (1852-1929). Like J.F. Millet (1814-1875) and J. Breton (1827-1906) before them, these artists devoted their artistic careers to the depiction of the toils of the French peasant - often seen hard at work in the fields. Salon critics rightly perceived Julien Dupré as Breton's closest follower. Through idealization of form, he invested his peasant women with a heroic aura, though unlike his predecessor, his figures are usually engaged in vigorous action. His landscapes, with their cloudy skies and varied motifs, are also much more active. Their high key color and spontaneous brushwork have a vivacity and freshness that distinguishes them from the somber calm of Breton's scenes.
Dupré's most enduring and powerful image is that of a single Herculean female, positioned dramatically and elegantly in the foreground of the painting, pitching hay. His finely modeled figures pay tribute to his academic training, as well as his study of the works of Breton and Bouguereau; while his freer handling of the background areas, at times done with a palette knife, shows the influence of the Impressionists.
Dupré received his artistic training in the academic studios of Isidore Pils (1815-1875), Desire-Francois Laugée and Henri Lehmann (1814-1882). He exhibited his first painting at the Paris Salon in 1876 and thereafter, became a regular exhibitor until his death in 1910. In 1880 he was awarded a third-class medal for Faucheurs de Luzerne and in 1881 he received a second-class medal for his La Récolte des Foins. His work was sought after internationally and he found a good market in the United States.
In 1891 Dupré was described as: "one of the most rising artists of the French School. He is individual in his work, accurate as an observer, earnest as a painter, healthy in his instincts and intensely artistic in his impressions and translations of them... he is always one of the attractions at the Salon."
Acknowledging his mastery at portraying both animals and humans powerfully, yet gracefully, one cannot help but pay tribute to his immense talent in being able to re-create nature's light on canvas a feat that many have attempted but few have succeeded in accomplishing. Whether it is the light filtering through a group of trees onto the figures and animals below or the warm effulgent sun bathing the lush French countryside, Dupré is always true to nature.
In The White Cow several of M. Dupré's merits as a painter are exemplified. The cow taking a patient and intelligent interest in the operation of milking is superbly drawn, and her expression admirably rendered. The light and shade, the balance of composition, and the rendering and disposition of the figures combine in this picture to produce a canvas which pleases the spectator the more he examines it. — [Dupré du pré tirait son inspiration].
Milking Time (1888, 239x299cm) Peasant Girl with Sheep (59x69cm) Dans le Pré (1881)
Shepherdess with Goat, Sheep and Cow _ This Shepherdess is a beautiful example of the emerald green expanses for which he is so renowned. Country life was neither glorified nor depressing for Dupré, who repeatedly endeavored to capture life as it really was. Our young shepherdess affectionately glances at her goat who, by staring out at us, the viewers, has become the focal point of the canvas and makes us feel part of the action.
Le Repos (71x48cm) La Faneuse (66x81cm) Laitière (39x55cm) Le Déjeuner de la Faneuse (56x66cm) Peasant Woman with Cows & Sheep (38x55cm) Returning From the Fields (46x33cm) — La Vachère (48x65cm) — Back from the Fields (1895, 124x150cm) — The Harvesters (1889, 39x46cm) The Wheatfield (1882) La Récolte Des Foins (1881, 65x81cm) A Shepherdess with her flock (50x61cm) — Feeding Time (65x81cm) — In the Meadow (1881)
Gogh paintings shown. ^top^
Paintings by the late Dutch painter Vincent van Gogh are shown at the Bernheim-Jeune gallery in Paris. The 71 paintings, which captured their subjects in bold brushstrokes and expressive colors, caused a sensation across the art world. Eleven years before, while living in Auvers-sur-Oise outside Paris, van Gogh had committed suicide without any notion that his work was destined to win acclaim beyond his wildest dreams. In his lifetime, he had sold only one painting. One of his paintings--the Yasuda Sunflowers--sold for just under $40 million at a Christie's auction in 1987.
Born in Zundert in the Netherlands on 30 March 1853, van Gogh worked as a salesman in an art gallery, a language teacher, a bookseller, and an evangelist among Belgium miners before settling on his true vocation as an artist. What is known as the "productive decade" began in 1880, and for the first few years he confined himself almost entirely to drawings and watercolors while acquiring technical proficiency. He studied drawing at the Brussels Academy and in 1881 went to the Netherlands to work from nature. The most famous work from the Dutch period was the dark and earthy The Potato Eaters (1885), which showed the influence of Jean-François Millet, a French painter famous for his peasant subjects.
In 1886, van Gogh went to live with his brother, Théo, in Paris. There, van Gogh met the foremost French painters of the postimpressionist period, including Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Paul Gauguin, Camille Pissarro, and Georges Seurat. He was greatly influenced by the theories of these artists and under the advice of Pissarro he adopted the kind of colorful palette for which he is famous. His painting Portrait of Père Tanguy (1887) was the first successful work in his new postimpressionist style.
In 1888, van Gogh, mentally exhausted and feeling he was becoming a burden on Théo, left Paris and took a house at Arles in southeastern France. The next 12 months marked his first great period, and working with great speed and intensity he produced such masterful works as his sunflower series [14 Sunflowers in a Vase >] and The Night Café (1888). He hoped to form a community of like-minded artists at Arles and was joined by Gauguin for a tense two months that culminated when van Gogh threatened Gauguin with a razor blade and then cut a piece of his own ear off. It was his first bout with mental illness, diagnosed as dementia. Van Gogh spent two weeks at the Arles Hospital and in April 1889 checked himself into the asylum at Saint-Rémy-de-Provence. He stayed there for 12 months and continued to work between recurrent attacks. One of the great paintings from this period was the swirling, visionary Starry Night (1889).
In May 1890, he left the asylum and visited Théo in Paris before going to live with Paul-Ferdinand Gachet, a homeopathic doctor and friend of Pissarro, at Auvers-sur-Oise. He worked enthusiastically for several months, but his mental and emotional state soon deteriorated. On 27 July 1890, feeling that he was a burden on Théo and others, he shot himself. He died on 29 July 1890, in the arms of his brother. He had exhibited a few canvases at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris and in Brussels, and after his death both salons showed small commemorative exhibits of his work. Over the next decade, a handful of other van Gogh exhibits took place, but it was not until the Bernheim-Jeune show in 1901 that he was recognized as a truly important painter. In subsequent decades, his fame grew exponentially, and today his paintings are among the most recognized works of art in the world.